Section 11     Wet Meadow Seeding

11.1 General

The specifications of Section 11 shall apply to the seeding of low-lying sites which have wet or damp soils through most of the year, for the purpose of establishing permanent low-maintenance native vegetation for lowland habitat restoration. The seed mix selected for wet meadow seeding shall consist entirely of native grass species and herbaceous broadleaf species which are compatible with permanent wet meadows. All labor, equipment, and materials required for the completion of Section 11 shall be furnished by the seeding contractor, unless specified otherwise.

11.2 Location

Sites selected for wet meadow seeding shall be irregularly inundated with standing water (water cover for 5-12% of the growing season), or seasonally inundated with water (water cover for 13-25% of the growing season). Wet meadow seeding sites shall not include tidal or brackish sites; nor streambanks or drainage ditches; nor stormwater settlement ponds or wetland mitigation sites; nor sites under the jurisdiction of a legal authority; nor sites where the rapid establishment of vegetative soil erosion protection is of primary concern. Wet meadows shall not be seeded in sites that receive less than 3/4 day of direct sun exposure, nor in sites that receive frequent foot or vehicular traffic, nor in sites that are subject to cover by standing water for periods longer than 25% of the growing season.

11.3 Soil Testing

11.3a Soil Testing Requirements

Soil shall be tested by the University of Maryland Soil Testing Laboratory, or another accredited soil test lab for soil acidity (pH) and soluble salts. Soil testing for phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and other nutrients is recommended. Soil samples of the upper 4.0 inches of the soil surface shall be used for all soil tests.

11.3b Soil Acidity (pH)

Soil shall be tested for soil acidity (pH). The pH of the seeding site, to a depth of 4.0 inches, shall be suitable for wet meadow seeding when the soil pH lies in the range of pH 5.0 to pH 7.0.

11.3c Soil Soluble Salts

Soil shall be tested for soluble salts concentration. Soluble salts in soils intended for wet meadow seeding shall not exceed 300 parts per million (ppm) or 3.0 ms/cm at the time of seeding.

11.4 Site and Soil Preparation

11.4a Vegetation Removal

.1. Recommendations. Because wet meadow vegetation is often slow to establish, and because many weed species are difficult or impossible to selectively remove from a permanent wet meadow, it is recommended to destroy (i.e., kill) as much of the pre-existing vegetation as possible before seeding. Unless desirable vegetation is present or there are other compelling reasons to conserve the pre-existing vegetation, as much of the pre-existing vegetation as possible should be destroyed as standard practice. Therefore, in the absence of any other agreement between the seeding contractor and other affected parties, the seeding contractor shall destroy over 99% of the pre-existing vegetation groundcover at the seeding site, including saplings, shrubs, weeds, grasses, or other vegetation, and including the viable roots and rhizomes of these plants.

.2. Guarantee. When the procedures specified in Section 11.4a.3. are performed, so that over 99% of the pre-existing vegetation is destroyed prior to seeding, then the seeding contractor may guarantee the success of the seeding. However, if the seeding contractor is contractually precluded from destroying over 99% of the pre-existing vegetation groundcover, then the seeding contractor shall not guarantee the success of the seeding.

.3. Procedures. Unless specified otherwise, the seeding contractor shall use one or some combination of the methods below to destroy over 99% of the pre-existing vegetation at the meadow seeding site:

Tillage One or two tillage operations (i.e., rototilling, disking, etc.) to an average depth of 2.0 to 4.0 inches. For better performance, one or two weeks should be allowed to elapse between tillage operations, so that weed seeds and perennial plant parts may have time to germinate or regrow, and so be destroyed by the second tilling.

Herbicide One or two applications at full label rates of a non-selective herbicide which does not leave an active soil residual, such as glyphosate (e.g., Round-upTM) or glufosinate-ammonium (e.g., FinaleTM). For better performance, one or two weeks should be allowed to elapse between spraying operations, so that weed seeds and perennial plant parts may have time to germinate or regrow, and so be destroyed by the second spraying.

11.4b Soil Preparation

.1. Prep for broadcast seeding. If the site will be seeded by broadcast seeding methods (Section 11.7c), the soil shall be loosened with rototillers, disk harrows, or other soil preparation equipment which shall leave the soil with an irregular open surface. Vegetation may have been previously destroyed by spraying with glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, according to the specifications of Section 11.3. However, tillage of only 1" will not be sufficient to destroy weeds and prepare the soil in a single operation (see Section 11.4a.3, above). If dead vegetation at the soil surface is excessive, i.e., a matte of dead vegetation greater that 1.5 inches in thickness is present, the site shall be tilled to a suitable depth, so that most of the vegetation is incorporated into the soil. All rocks and other debris larger than 3.0 inches in diameter shall be removed from the soil surface. The site shall be leveled so that no irregularities greater than 2.0 inches above or below grade per linear foot are present. The soil at the time of seeding shall be firm, and the surface shall be loose and open, so that wet meadow seeds may readily fall into soil spaces.

.2. Prep for drill seeding. If the site will be seeded by drill seeding methods with a suitable native grass and forb drill seeder (Section 11.7d), the soil may be prepared as described in Section 11.4b.1, above, or the site may be seeded by drilling the seed directly into the stubble of the previously killed vegetation. However, if dead vegetation at the soil surface is excessive, i.e., a matte of dead vegetation greater that 1.5 inches in thickness is present, the site shall be tilled to a suitable depth, so that most of the vegetation is incorporated into the soil. In sites where no tillage shall be performed, it is assumed that vegetation will have been previously destroyed by spraying with glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, according to the specifications of Section 11.4a. However, if weed populations are very low, drill seeding without prior tillage or spraying may be possible. If tillage prior to drill seeding is performed, then all rocks and other debris larger than 3.0 inches in diameter shall be removed from the soil surface. The site shall be leveled so that no irregularities greater than 2.0 inches above or below grade per linear foot are present.

11.5 Fertilizer

Starter fertilizer (i.e., a fertilizer applied in the absence of soil tests and without regard to nutrient requirements demonstrated by soil testing) shall not be applied to wet meadow seeding sites. Fertilizer to correct nutrient deficiencies demonstrated by soil tests may be applied up to ten (10) days before seeding, or at the time of seeding, or up to five (5) days after seeding operations are concluded.

11.6 Seeding Dates, Species, and Seed Mixtures

11.6a Wet Meadow Seeding Dates

Wet meadow seedings shall be sown during the following times, based upon USDA Plant Hardiness Zones and the region of Maryland.

Southern Maryland & Eastern Shore USDA Zone 7a and 7b 2/15 - 4/15 and 9/15 - 11/15
Central Maryland USDA Zone 6b 3/1 - 4/30 and 9/1 - 11/1
Western Maryland USDA Zone 6a and 5b 3/15 - 5/1 and 8/15 - 10/15

11.6b Species for Wet Meadow Seeding and Seed Mixes

.1. Suitable species. The species and seeding rates shown in Table W-1: Broadleaf Herbaceous Species and Table W-2: Grasses, Sedges, and Rushes are suitable for wet meadow seeding. Other native species not shown in Table W-1 or W-2 may be included in the seed mix, but the total weight of such species may not account for more than 10% of the seed mix by weight, and no species not shown in Table W-1 or W-2 may be seeded at a rate higher than 0.25 lbs. PLS per acre. Note: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Codes for wetland species: OBL species = found in wetlands 99% of the time; FACW species = found in wetlands 67-99% of the time; FAC species = found in wetlands 34-66% of the time..

.2. Excluded species. No seed of any non-native, introduced, or exotic species shall be included in a wet meadow seed mix. Examples of excluded species are included in, but not limited to, those shown in Table X-1: Excluded Grass Species and Table X-2: Excluded Broadleaf Species. Table X-1 and X-2 show only some of the many species that shall not be included in wet meadow seed mixes.

.3. Seed mix. The seed mix for wet meadows shall contain a mix of species from Table W-1 and Table W-2, so that a minimum of twelve (12) species from Table W-1 are combined with a minimum of four (4) species from Table W-2. It is recommended that as many species from Table W-1 and Table W-2 as are appropriate to the seeding site be included in the seed mix. Key species are underlined; it is strongly recommended that these species be included in the seed mix, whenever possible.

.4. Seeding rates. It is recommended that all species included in Table W-1 and Table W-2 be seeded at the rates shown, below. However, if at least 80% of the species in the seed mix are sown within the recommended range shown, and no species are seeded above the dont exceed limit, the seed mix shall be considered suitable for wet meadow seeding

Table W-1
Herbaceous Broadleaf Species Suitable for Wet Meadow Seeding

All Rates in Pure Live Seed, Pounds per Acre

Common Name Range Dont Exceed USFWS Comments
Blue Lobelia 0.05 - 0.10 0.20 FACW. Showy blue flowers.
Blue Vervain 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 FACW. Wands of small blue flowers.
Boneset 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 FACW. Large cluster of white flowers.
Calico Aster 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 FAC. Purple/pink/white flowers.
Cardinal Flower 0.05 - 0.10 0.20 FACW. Brilliant red flowers.
Crooked-stem Aster 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 FAC. Pale blue flowers.
Flat-topped Aster 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 FACW. White flowers.
Golden Alexanders 0.20 - 0.50 1.00 FACW. Yellow flowers.
Golden Ragwort 0.20 - 0.50 1.00 FACW. Yellow flowers.
Grass-leaved Goldenrod 0.20 - 0.40 0.80 FAC. Yellow flowers.
Green-headed Coneflower 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 FACW. Yellow flowers. Very tall.
Halberd-Leaved Rose Mallow 0.40 - 0.80 1.50 OBL. Showy pink or white/pink flowers
Joe Pye Weed 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 FACW. Large cluster of pink flowers.
Narrow-leaved Sunflower 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 FACW. Showy yellow flowers.
New England Aster 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 FACW. Clusters of purple flowers.
New York Aster 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 FACW. Clusters of purple flowers.
New York Ironweed 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 FACW. Large deep purple flower clusters.
Purple Coneflower 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 FAC. Large purple flowers.
Purple-leaved Willow-herb 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 OBL. Small pinkish flowers.
Purple-stemmed Aster 0.20 - 0.50 1.00 OBL. Blue flowers.
Rose Mallow 0.40 - 0.80 1.50 OBL. Showy large pink flowers.
Rough-leaved Goldenrod 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 OBL. Yellow flowers.
Small-flowered Agrimony 0.20 - 0.50 1.00 FAC. Yellow flowers.
Sneezeweed 0.20 - 0.50 1.00 FACW. Yellow flowers.
Spotted Joe Pye Weed 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 FACW. Large cluster of pink flowers.
Spotted St. Johns-wort 0.20 - 0.50 1.00 FAC. Yellow flowers.
Square-stem Monkeyflower 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 OBL. Pale blue flowers
Swamp Milkweed 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 OBL. Clusters of bright pink flowers.
Tall Meadow-rue 0.05 - 0.10 0.20 FACW. Small white flowers. Tall plant.
Turks-cap Lily 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 FACW. Very showy orange flowers.
Turtlehead 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 OBL. Spikes of pale pink flowers.
Wrinkle-leaved Goldenrod 0.10 - 0.20 0.40 FAC. Clusters of yellow flowers.

Table W-2
Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, etc. Suitable for Wet Meadow Seeding

All Rates in Pure Live Seed, Pounds per Acre

Common Name Range Dont Exceed USFWS Comments
American Bur-reed 0.50 - 1.50 3.00 OBL. A smaller bur-reed.
Arrow Arum 1.00 - 2.00 4.00 OBL. Related to jack-in-the-pulpit.
Bearded Sedge 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 OBL. A marsh sedge.
Blueflag 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 OBL. An iris with a showy blue flower.
Bluejoint grass 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 FACW. A warm-season grass.
Bushy Bluestem 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 FACW. The wetland cousin of broomsedge.
Deertongue 0.50 - 1.50 3.00 FAC. A warm-season grass. Adaptable.
Fowl Mannagrass 0.50 - 1.50 3.00 OBL. A cool-season marsh grass.
Fox Sedge 1.00 - 2.00 4.00 OBL. A marsh sedge.
Giant Bur-reed 1.00 - 2.00 4.00 OBL. A bigger bur-reed.
Great Bulrush 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 OBL A very big bulrush.
Hard-stemmed Bulrush 0.30 - 0.60 1.20 OBL. A less common bulrush.
Lurid Sedge 0.30 - 0.60 0.90 OBL. A yellow-green marsh sedge.
Reed Canarygrass 0.20 - 0.40 0.80 FACW. A cool-season grass, often aggressive.
Rice Cutgrass 1.00 - 2.00 3.00 OBL. A cool-season marsh grass.
Roughstalk Bluegrass 0.20 - 0.40 0.80 FAC. A cool-season turfgrass.
Soft Rush 0.20 - 0.40 0.80 FACW. A true rush.
Switchgrass 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 FAC. A warm-season grass. Adaptable.
Three-square Bulrush 0.50 - 1.00 2.00 FACW. Common Three-square
Three-way Sedge 0.10 - 0.30 0.60 OBL. A very common marsh sedge.
Virginia Wildrye 1.00 - 2.00 4.00 FACW. A cool-season grass.
Whitegrass 1.00 - 2.00 3.00 FACW. A grass related to rice cutgrass.
Wood Reedgrass 0.40 - 0.80 1.60 FACW. A cool-season grass.
Wool grass 0.20 - 0.40 0.80 FACW. A bulrush.

Table X-1
Excluded Grass Species

Some Species Which are Not Suitable for Wet Meadow Seeding

(Note: All Non-Native, Introduced, or Exotic Species are Excluded Species)

Kentucky Bluegrass Annual Ryegrass Phragmites Miscanthus spp
Orchardgrass Perennial Ryegrass Japanese Millet Arundo donax, etc.
Timothy Creeping Red Fescue Foxtail Millet Bamboo
Smooth Bromegrass Redtop Meadow Foxtail
Tall Fescue Creeping Bentgrass Sweet Vernal Grass

Table X-2
Excluded Broadleaf Species

Some Species Which are Not Suitable for Wet Meadow Seeding

(Note: All Non-Native, Introduced, or Exotic Species are Excluded Species)

Daylilly Purple Loosestrife Shasta Daisy Crown Vetch
Yellow Flag Gooseneck Yarrow Birdsfoot Trefoil
Queen Annes Lace Dames Rocket    White Clover

 

11.7 Seeding Methods

11.7a General

Wet meadows can be difficult to seed because the sites involved often afford poor access or traction. The use of hand-held or small push-type broadcast seeders is recommended. The use of specialized grass and forb drill seeders in such sites can be difficult, but is acceptable. The use of hydraulic seeders is not recommended. The use of a minimal planting depth of 0.25-0.75 inches in combination with a firm seedbed is ideal.

11.7b Broadcast Seeding

.1. Definition and seeding methods. Broadcast seeding involves the use of a properly calibrated rotary spreader which is equipped with an agitator to ensure continuous mixing. All of the seed intended for the wet meadow seeding site shall be combined in a barrel or other suitable container with one or more coarse, low density, non-toxic bulking agents such as calcined clay (Kitty LitterTM, or similar product), fine cocoa shell mulch, coarse vermiculite, or coarse perlite, and thoroughly mixed at the time of seeding. Thorough mixing and the use of one or more bulking agents is required to ensure continuous seed flow through the spreader, and to improve seed distribution by preventing seed mix segregation.

.2. Seed incorporation and soil rolling. After seeding, the seed shall be raked or dragged into the soil surface to an average depth of 0.25 to 0.75 inch. When the soil is loose or fluffy, the seedbed shall be rolled with a weighted roller, so that the seed is firmly pressed into the soil.

11.7c Drill Seeding

.1. Definition and seeding methods. Drill seeding involves the use of a drill seeder that is manufactured specifically for fluffy grass and forb seed. Suitable seeders typically include three separate seed hoppers with positive-feed mechanisms, and include TruaxTM, TyeTM, and J. Thom WildseederTM, among others. The seed of each species to be seeded shall be obtained unmixed, and shall be sorted by size as directed by the manufacturer of the seeding equipment. All instructions provided by the manufacturer of the seeding equipment shall be strictly observed and followed by the contractor.

.2. Seed incorporation and soil rolling. Most suitable seeders include soil openers to ensure a seeding depth of 0.10 to 0.50 inches as well as rollers to ensure a firm seedbed. However, if the seeding equipment is not equipped with a heavy roller, so that the soil is left in a loose or fluffy condition after seeding, the seedbed shall be rolled with a weighted roller in a separate operation, so that the grass and forb seed is firmly pressed into the soil.

11.8 Mulching with Straw After Seeding

11.8a General

The use of straw is not required for wet meadow seedings. However, the use of straw in combination with a straw crimper which is capable of pressing the straw 1.0-2.0 inches into the soil surface is recommended. In sites which may not allow the entry of heavy machinery, a liquid mulch binder or tackifier may be applied over the straw in order to ensure that the straw is not easily washed from the seeding site. When straw is used as a seed mulch it shall be blown or otherwise applied uniformly over the surface of the seeded area at a rate of 0.25 to 1.0 tons per acre. Class AA or Class A straw are preferred for wet meadow seedings; Class B straw may be used, but it is not recommended. Neither Class C straw nor hay shall be used as a mulch for wet meadow seeding. See Section 7.2 for more info about straw and hay. See Section 7.4 for more info about mulch application.

11.8b Straw Physical Condition and Weed Content

Straw shall be bright in color, and shall not be wet, musty, moldy, caked, decayed, or dusty. It should be easily loosened when removed from the bale, and able to be uniformly spread by hand or with the use of a straw blower. Straw used as mulch in wet meadow seeding sites shall be free of the seeds, rhizomes, or other viable parts of the following weeds:

Balloonvine Canada Thistle Johnsongrass & hybrids Serrated Tussock
Bermudagrass Curly Thistle Musk Thistle Sicklepod
Bindweed Dodder Phragmites Spurred Anoda
Corn cockle Giant Foxtail Plumeless Thistle Wild Garlic
Cocklebur Horse Nettle Quackgrass Wild Onion

The seeding contractor shall take special care to insure that the seed of Polygonum perfoliatum (commonly called tearthumb or mile-a-minute weed), an extremely damaging weed of wetlands, is not introduced in straw used at the seeding site.

11.9 Irrigation After Seeding

Wet meadows shall be seeded when a minimum of 1/4 inch of natural rainfall is expected or when a minimum of 1/4 inch of irrigation will be received within 10 days after seeding. If sufficient natural rainfall is not received within 10 days, the new seeding shall be irrigated with a minimum of 1/4 inch of water, or so that water penetrates the soil to a uniform minimum depth of 4.0 inches.

11.10 Site Protection, Damage Repair, and Reseeding

11.10a Site Protection

It shall be the responsibility of the seeding contractor to install signs, flagging, etc. at the perimeter of the wet meadow seeding site immediately after its completion, which shall serve to notify foot and vehicular traffic that a sensitive area may be damaged by their entry. The seeding contractor shall not be financially or otherwise held liable to repair a wet meadow seeding site that is damaged by the entrance of such traffic when the site has been appropriately designated with signs, flagging, etc. at its perimeter (see Disclaimer, Section 11.14).

11.10b Repairs to Damaged Areas

.1. General. The seeding contractor shall apply wet meadow seed and straw as specified in Section 11, and ensure that these materials are secured to the soil as required so that they shall not be blown, washed, or otherwise removed from the meadow seeding site, and so that nearby streams and other areas shall be protected from soil, fertilizer, compost, and the intrusion of unwanted meadow seed.

.2. Damage repair and reseeding. In the event of heavy rain, wind, or other natural event that causes damage to the wet meadow seeding site which is of a kind or type that may have been anticipated or prevented by the seeding contractor, such as through the use of mulch, staples, tackifier, etc., then the seeding contractor shall be obliged to make repairs limited to the damaged areas within the site, including regrading, reseeding, and remulching, so that the wet meadow seeding site is restored to a condition acceptable according to the specifications of Section 11.

.3. Repairs to nearby areas. In the event of heavy rain, etc. that causes damage to the wet meadow seeding site, as described in Section 11.11b.2., above, and which also causes damage to nearby areas, as may be evidenced by soil deposition, straw deposition, etc. on the surfaces of the nearby areas, then the seeding contractor shall be obliged to make repairs to the damaged nearby areas, so that the nearby areas shall be restored to a condition substantially similar to their condition before the damaging event.

.4. Special limitations. The seeding contractor shall not be obliged, financially or otherwise, to regrade, reseed, remulch, or make any other repairs to the wet meadow seeding site, or to any nearby areas, when there is evidence that the damage caused to the site was substantially due to water, soil, or other materials which passed into the wet meadow seeding site from an area which was not stabilized or under the control or supervision of the seeding contractor. Examples of situations which shall void the responsibility of the seeding contractor to repair the wet meadow seeding site and nearby areas shall include the failure of responsible parties to provide effective groundcover, spillways, drainage diversions, water settlements, silt fence, etc. for areas which drain into the wet meadow seeding site, which would have prevented significant damage to the wet meadow seeding site and nearby areas.

11.11 Clean Up

Grading stakes, stones, trash, and other debris which may hinder the maintenance or detract from the appearance of a newly seeded wet meadow site shall be removed from the site when seeding operations are completed. Soil, straw, and other debris shall be removed from paved areas as soon as possible after spreading and seeding operations are completed. Clean up operations shall be completed before acceptance is given.

11.12 Acceptance

11.12a Acceptance of Materials

The seeding contractor shall inform all affected parties of the composition of wet meadow seed mixes, straw, and other materials which are intended for application at the seeding site before any of these materials are applied; acknowledgment of acceptance of these materials shall be given by the owner, general contractor, landscape architect, or other person(s) authorized to make such a decision before spreading or seeding operations are begun. Labels and other material identification pertaining to the materials which are applied shall be retained by the seeding contractor for a minimum of 90 days after the completion of spreading and seeding operations.

11.12b Acceptance of Performance

Acknowledgment of acceptable performance shall be given by the owner, general contractor, landscape architect, or other person(s) authorized to inspect the wet meadow seeding site upon the satisfactory completion of each Subsection of Section 11. The wet meadow seeding site shall be inspected within 24 hours of the completion of each Subsection, as indicated by the seeding contractor, unless specified otherwise. The seeding contractor shall give notification when all Subsections of Section 11 have been completed; final acceptance and payment shall be made within 24 hours of such notification, or within the time period specified in the contract.

11.13 Disclaimer

11.13a Damage

The seeding contractor shall not be financially or otherwise held liable to repair damages incurred to the wet meadow seeding site as a result of materials not applied under the supervision of the seeding contractor, nor by vandalism, nor by acts of God. The seeding contractor shall not be financially or otherwise held liable to reseed, remulch, repair or otherwise amend the seeding site as a result of the use of wet meadow seed mixtures, seed mulches, fertilizer, compost, soil amendments, or other products which are labeled in error or which are otherwise not in accordance with the label or description provided with them by the manufacturer or distributor of the products, when they are applied by the seeding contractor in good faith, in accordance with their label or description.

11.13b Hazards

It shall be recognized that the wet meadow seeding site is a construction zone not under the ownership or legal control of the seeding contractor, and as such may present hazards to persons or property which enter the site. The seeding contractor specifically disclaims any and all responsibility for the safety and security of persons or property which may enter the meadow seeding site before the seeding contractor has begun work or when work is underway or at any time after work has been completed, and without regard to whether such entry is legal or otherwise. The seeding contractor shall assume no responsibility for personal injury or property damage, nor be subject to any claims of negligence, when the seeding contractor has performed work according to the specifications of MSA-GS-99, as mutually agreed, or has applied products or materials according to the recommendations of their manufacturer or distributor.

11.14 Guarantee

11.14a General Guarantee

The seeding contractor shall guarantee that wet meadow seed mixtures, straw, and other materials and methods used at the seeding site shall be selected and used under the supervision of the seeding contractor according to the specifications of Section 11, unless specified otherwise, and that those materials and methods shall be appropriate for the site and the intended use of the site.

11.14b Term and Limitations of Guarantee

Although a minimum of 10% living wet meadow groundcover is often established within 3 months after seeding, the seeding contractor shall not guarantee the establishment of any percentage of living groundcover at the seeding site within any timeframe, except as may be contractually agreed. When seeding operations are completed outside the times specified in Section 11.6a, because of contractual obligations or because of delays not caused by the seeding contractor, the seeding contractor shall not guarantee the success of the seeding. When the seeding contractor is contractually precluded from eliminating over 99% of the pre-existing vegetation groundcover prior to seeding, as described in Section 11.4a, the seeding contractor shall not guarantee the success of the seeding.

11.14c Special Guarantees

.1. Soil erosion. The seeding contractor shall guarantee that appropriate efforts shall be taken to limit soil erosion and the loss of seed and mulch materials which are applied by the seeding contractor according to the specifications of Section 11. The seeding contractor shall endeavor to alert parties responsible for the control of water and/or soil erosion outside the seeding site which may adversely affect the success of the wet meadow seeding; however, the seeding contractor shall not be obliged to identify, or report upon, or render any inadequacies fit to perform any particular purpose.

.2. Species selection. The seeding contractor shall guarantee that appropriate efforts shall be taken to ensure that only native species of grasses and forbs are selected for seeding at the meadow site, and that all species selected for use shall be seeded in a manner appropriate for the species and the intended use of the site, subject to the limitations of Section 11.13a.

11.15 Payment

The seeding contractor shall give notification upon the completion of Section 11; the wet meadow seeding site shall be inspected within 24 hours of such notification, and payment shall be made at that time, or as specified in the contract. When payment is not received within the specified time period, the seeding contractor may void any guarantees related to Section 9, and may seek appropriate legal remedies.