Section 5    Seed Mixtures & Blends

5.1 General

The specifications of Section 5 shall apply to the selection of turfgrass seed mixtures and seed blends, and to the conduct of certain aspects of seeding operations. All labor, equipment, and materials required for the completion of Section 5 shall be furnished by the seeding contractor, who shall select appropriate seed mixtures or blends from those described in Section 5.5 (general turfgrass areas), or in Section 5.6 (rough turfgrass areas), unless specified otherwise. Specifications for seeding areas which will not be mowed, or which will only be mowed a few times per year, or which have slopes that cannot be mowed (where the control of erosion is most important), are described Section 8.

5.2 Certified Seed

Seed mixtures and blends described in Section 5 shall be tested and certified by the Maryland Department of Agriculture Turf and Seed Section, and shall carry Maryland Interagency Certified tags on their bags or other containers at the time of seeding.

5.3 Seed Germination Test

Seed shall be used within nine months of its most recent germination test. Seed which has been in storage more than 9 months since its most recent test may have experienced a significant reduction in germination, and shall be retested so that appropriate seeding rates may be calculated. Seeding rates specified in Section 5 are based on pure live seed (PLS), which assumes a 100% germination rate. Therefore, actual seeding rates shall be calculated using the seed purity and germination test data provided on the seed tag, and the seeding rate information provided in Section 5.

5.4 Cultivars

INTRODUCTION


During the last decade, numerous new turfgrass cultivars have been developed and released by turfgrass seed breeders. However, while many of these cultivars are adapted to the environmental conditions that prevail in other regions of the country, many are not adapted to the difficult environmental conditions that occur in the transition zone, which includes Maryland and Virginia. Thus, to identify cultivars that will perform well in this region, extensive cultivar trials are evaluated at the University of Maryland, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, and the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (headquartered at Beltsville, MD).

The cultivar performance data obtained at various locations in Maryland and Virginia are reviewed annually in a joint meeting of university researchers, an NTEP researcher, and representatives of the departments of agriculture of both states. Use of recommended cultivars usually results in a turfgrass stand of higher quality and density, greater stress tolerance, lower nutrient requirements, less water usage, fewer pest problems and thus reduced pesticide use.

There has been extensive interest in recent years regarding turfgrass species that have reduced nutrient requirements, especially reduced nitrogen needs. The two recommended turfgrass species with the lowest nitrogen requirements are the fine fescues and zoysiagrass, while turf-type tall fescue has intermediate requirements. Although Kentucky bluegrass and bermudagrass generally have the highest nitrogen requirements, research has identified several Kentucky bluegrass cultivars that provide fair quality under reduced nitrogen fertility and other maintenance inputs.

The following lists of recommended cultivars represent those that have been performing well in trials in both states over a period of at least several years. Cultivars listed in italics are considered promising but have only been tested in Maryland or Virginia for 2 years, or may be difficult to find due to limited seed availability. Cultivars followed by a numerical notation may be removed from these lists in subsequent for the following reasons:

Cultivar1 - may be removed from the list due to declining field performance relative to other cultivars

Cultivar2 - may be removed from the list due to declining seed quality

Cultivar3 - may be removed from the list due to non-availability of certified seed

Cultivar4 - may be removed from the list due to the lack of current testing data relative to other cultivars. The cultivar will be removed from the list if it is not included in the next available cultivar trial.

 

CERTIFIED SOD RECOMMENDATIONS


The Maryland certified sod program is administered by the Maryland Department of Agriculture. Rather than naming individual cultivars, many specifications require that certified sod of a particular turfgrass species be used. Specifying certified sod guarantees that the sod will contain cultivars that are currently recommended by researchers in Maryland and Virginia, will have been seeded in recommended percentages, and will be of high quality (free of insects, weeds, and diseases). Thus, the need for constantly updated specifications to reflect improvements in cultivars is greatly minimized. Listed below are the recommendations for Kentucky bluegrass, turf-type tall fescue, fine fescue, bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass sod.

Zoysiagrass Sod


Only twelve cultivars are currently recommended in Maryland for certified sod production due to potential winter hardiness problems of other cultivars. The group listed as vegetative cultivars can only be obtained as sod, plugs, or sprigs. The group listed as seeded may be obtained as seed as well as in vegetative forms.

Vegetative Cultivars

Belair4

Meyer

Cavalier

Omni

Marquis

Sunburst

Seeded Cultivars

J-14

Zen 400

J-36

Zen 500

J-37

Zenith

Bermudagrass Sod


Only six cultivars are currently suggested for use in Maryland for certified sod production due to potential winter hardiness problems of other cultivars.

Midfield

Quickstand

Midiron

Tufcote

Midlawn

Vamont

Kentucky Bluegrass Sod


A minimum of 3 Kentucky bluegrass cultivars must be chosen, with each cultivar ranging from a minimum of 10% to a maximum of 35% of the mixture's weight. At least 65% of the mixture must be from cultivars listed in Category I. No more than 35% of the mixture may be comprised of promising cultivars.

Category I: Recommended Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars (65 - 100% of the mixture).

Absolute

Champagne

Haga

Odyssey

Allure

Chateau2

Impact

Opti-Green4

Alpine4

Chicago

Jefferson

Platini

America

Classic

Julia4

Preakness4

Apollo

Compact

Kelly4

Princeton 105

Arcadia

Conni

Liberator

Quantum Leap

Ascot

Coventry

Liberty4

Rambo

Aspen4

Eagleton4

Limousine

Rugby II

Award

Eclipse

Livingston

Serene

Barirus

Envicta

Lofts 17574

Showcase

Baronie

Explorer

Marquis

SR 2000

Blacksburg

Fairfax4

Merit4

SR 2109

Blackstone

Freedom4

Midnight

Total Eclipse

Bluechip

Georgetown4

Monopoly4

Touchdown4

Brilliant

Glade

Moonlight

Unique

Caliber

Gnome4

Nottingham4

Viva4

Cannon4

Goldrush

Nuglade

Washington4

Challenger

Category II Special Use Kentucky bluegrass cultivars (0-35% of the mixture).

For shade tolerance:

America

Compact

Princeton 105

Ascot

Coventry

Quantum Leap

Brilliant

Liberator

Showcase

Champagne

Moonlight

SR2000

Chateau2

Nuglade

Unique

For low maintenance tolerance:

Barirus

Freedom4

Midnight

Baron

Haga

Monopoly4

Caliber

Livingston4

NUSTAR4

Eagleton

Merit4

Washington4

Turf-Type Tall Fescue Sod:

(Turf-type tall fescue cultivars may be seeded individually or in blends.)

Alamo E

Dominion

Montauk3,4

Scorpio

Apache II

Duke4

Mustang II3

Shenandoah

Arid 3

Duster

Olympic Gold

Shenandoah II

Avanti4

Eldorado4

Olympic II3,4

Southern Choice

Axiom

Empress

Oncue

SR 82004

Bandana

Falcon II

Palisades3,4

SR 82101

Barlexus4

Finelawn Petite

Pixie4

SR 83004

Barrington

Gazelle1

Pixie E+

Stetson4

Bonanza4

Genesis

Plantation

Tarheel

Bonanza II4

Good-En

Pyramid4

TF6

Bonsai 2000

Grande4

Rebel 2000

Titan 2

Bravo2

Guardian4

Rebel 3D4

Tomahawk4

Bulldawg

Heritage4

Rebel III4

Trailblazer II4

Chapel Hill

Houndog 54

Rebel Jr4

Tulsa1

Chieftain II4

Jaguar 3

Rebel Sentry

Twilight II

Chinook

Lancer4

Red Coat

Virtue

Cochise II

Leprechaun

Regiment

Watchdog

Comstock

Marksman1

Rembrandt

Wildcat2,4

Coyote

Masterpiece

Renegade

Wolfpack

Crossfire II

Micro DD

Reserve

WPEZE

Crossfire4

Millennium

Safari2

Wyatt

Debutante4

Minimustang3,4

The following Kentucky bluegrass cultivars may be mixed with turf-type tall fescue to enhance sod strength during harvesting (may be 0-10% of the seed mixture).

Abbey, Baron, Cheri, Nassau, Nustar, Ram I, Shamrock, Wildwood, and all cultivars from Category I Kentucky bluegrasses except Touchdown.

FINE FESCUE SOD

The following fine fescue cultivars may be used for the production of certified sod.

No one cultivar may be more than 40% of the seed mixture by weight. Hard fescue mustbe 40-95% of the mixture. Chewings, sheep, and creeping red fescue may be 0-40% of the mixture (NOTE: the MD State Highway Administration will not accept sod with creeping red fescue). Promising cultivars may not compose more than 40% of the mixture.

Kentucky bluegrass must 5-40% of the mixture by weight. Kentucky bluegrasses must be selected from those eligible for mixing with tall fescue

Aurora (H)

Jamestown II (C)

Scaldis (H)

Banner II (C)

K-2 (C)

Shademaster II (CR)

Bighorn (S-H)

MX 86 (S)

Shadow II (C)

Bridgeport (C)

Nordic (H)

Spartan2 (H)

Brigade (H)

Osprey (H)

SR5100 (C)

Brittany (C)

Pamela (H)

Tiffany (C)

Discovery (H)

Quatro (S)

Treazure (C)

Ecostar (H)

Reliant II (H)

Victory (C)

Flyer II (CR)

Sandpiper (C)

H = hard fescue C = chewings fescue

S = sheep fescue CR = creeping red fescue

PROFESSIONAL SEED MIXTURE RECOMMENDATIONS


Many seeding specifications (for municipalities, counties, state and governmental agencies, landscape architects, and professional organizations) state that cultivars used for turfgrass establishment must be selected from this publication (Agronomy Mimeo #77). Following are the recommended seeding mixtures, and the cultivars recommended to be included in these mixtures. Specifications for state highway seeding, while using information provided in this publication, are developed separately and may require some species and/or cultivars not normally recommended for uses other than roadside seeding.

Recommended Species for Seeding Blends and Mixtures:

Full Sun High Maintenance Turf - For use in full sun areas that will receive irrigation and intensive management. Perennial ryegrass may be added where rapid establishment is necessary for erosion control.

Kentucky bluegrass (85-100%) and perennial ryegrass (0-15%) -- A minimum of 3 bluegrass cultivars should be selected, with each ranging from a minimum of 10% to a maximum of 35% of the mixture by weight. No more than 15% of a perennial ryegrass cultivar should be used as it will predominate if seeded at a higher percentage.

Full Sun to Moderate Shade Turf -- For seeding locations that have both full sun and shady sites. Two different types of seed mixtures may be selected for these sites. Tall fescue turf will tolerate a wider range of management inputs.

Kentucky bluegrass - fine fescue turf will generally require higher maintenance for the survival of the Kentucky bluegrass in the sun, but reduced maintenance inputs are recommended for the maximum survival of the creeping red fescue in the shade.

Turf-type tall fescue (100%) -- A single cultivar or a blend of turf-type tall fescue cultivars may be used.

Or

Kentucky bluegrass (80-90%) and creeping red fescue (10-20%) -- A minimum of 3 bluegrass cultivars should be selected, ranging from a minimum of 10% to a maximum of 35% of the mixture by weight. One creeping red fescue cultivar should be selected. More than 20% creeping red fescue may cause a dominance of this species during establishment.

Low management and/or Shade Turf -- For use on sites that will receive minimal management (no irrigation, low fertility) and/or if the site has partial to full shade.

Fine fescue (100%) -- One of the recommended fine fescues may be selected. Neither blending cultivars nor mixing of fine fescue species have been studied extensively in MD or VA for compatibility. Limited research doe not indicate any advantage to either. The fine fescues include hard fescue (H) chewing fescue (C), creeping red fescue (CR), and sheep fescue(S). Creeping red fescue and slender creeping fescue should be considered only for shady sites and not for sunny, low maintenance sites.

Recommended Cultivars for Seeding Mixture:

The recommended cultivars for the species listed in the aforementioned seed blends and mixtures are listed below.

Kentucky Bluegrass: Same as the cultivars recommended for certified sod production (above).

Tall Fescue: Same as the cultivars recommended for certified sod production (above).

Perennial Ryegrass:

Accent

Edge

Precision

Achiever

Elf

Prelude III3

Affinity

Esquire

Premier II

ASP400

Head Start

Prizm

Assure

Imagine

Quickstart

Blazer III

Laredo2

R.22

Brightstar3

Majesty

Saturn II

Brightstar II

Manhattan 3

Secretariat

Buccaneer*

Monterey

Sonata

Caddy Shack

Morning Star

SR4010

Calypso II

Omega 3

SR 4200

Catalina

Palmer III2

SR4400

Cutter

Panther

Top Gun

Derby Supreme

Passport

Top Hat3

Divine

Pennant II

Wind Star

Agronomy Mimeo prepared by: Dr. Thomas R. Turner, Turfgrass Specialist , Mr. David Funk and Mr. John Krouse Research Assistants, Department of Agronomy

5.5 General Turfgrass Areas

5.5a Use and Expected Maintenance of General Turfgrass Areas

General turfgrass areas are mowed on a regular basis, and include home lawns, commercial sites, parks, and playgrounds. General turfgrass areas receive variable amounts of fertilizer and pest control as part of their routine maintenance. The seeding rates specified in Section 5.5 are based on pure live seed (PLS); actual seeding rates shall be calculated using seed germination test data and pure live seed (PLS) rates. The lower end of the seeding range is appropriate for maximum economy; the upper end of the seeding range is appropriate where optimum coverage and turf density is required.

5.5b Seeding Times for General Turfgrass Areas

The seeding times for general turfgrass areas are shown in Table D, below. When seeding is completed within these times, the seeding contractor shall guarantee the success of the seeding (see Section 5.10 and Section 6.10) and shall be bound by the specifications for post-seeding care (see Section 6.7), unless specified otherwise.

Table D

Seeding Times for General Turfgrass Areas

Region Spring Fall
Western Maryland March 15 - June 1 August 1 - October 1
Central Maryland March 1 - May 15 August 15 - October 15
Eastern Shore and Southern Md. March 1 - May 15 August 15 - November 1

5.5c High Maintenance Kentucky Bluegrass

Shall be seeded in sites with full sun exposure, and which will receive irrigation and intensive management as normal maintenance. A minimum of three cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass shall be used, with each cultivar ranging from a minimum of 10% by weight of the seed mixture, to a maximum of 35% by weight of the seed mixture. One or more cultivars of perennial ryegrass may be added to a Kentucky bluegrass blend when more rapid establishment of turfgrass is required.. The seeding rate of such a blend (100% KBG), or mixture (KBG + PRG), shall not be less than 1.5 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2, and shall not be more than 2.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2.

Certified Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars (3 or more) 85-100%
Certified Perennial Ryegrass Cultivar(s) 0-15%

5.5d Medium Maintenance Turf-Type Tall Fescue

Shall be seeded in sites with full sun to partial shade exposure, and which will receive moderate inputs of routine maintenance. The seed may be a single cultivar or a blend of cultivars of turf-type tall fescue. The use of two or more cultivars is recommended. The seeding rate shall not be less than 5.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2, and shall not be more than 8.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2.

Certified Turf-Type Tall Fescue Cultivar(s) 100%

5.5e Medium Maintenance Turf-Type Tall Fescue + Kentucky Bluegrass

Shall be seeded in sites with full sun to partial shade exposure, and which will receive moderate inputs of routine maintenance. Both the turf-type tall fescue seed and the Kentucky bluegrass seed may be a single cultivar or a blend of cultivars. The seeding rate of this mixture shall not be less than 5.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2, and shall not be more than 8.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2.

Certified Turf-Type Tall Fescue Cultivar(s) 90-95%
Certified Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars(s) 5-10%

5.5f Medium Maintenance Kentucky Bluegrass + Creeping Red Fescue

Shall be seeded in sites with full sun to medium shade exposure, which will receive moderate amounts of routine maintenance. A minimum of three cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass, each cultivar ranging from a minimum of 10% of the mixture by weight and a maximum of 35% of the mixture by weight, shall be used with one cultivar of creeping red fescue. The seeding rate of this mixture shall not be less than 1.5 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2, and shall not be more than 3.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2.

Certified Kentucky Bluegrass Cultivars (3 or more) 80-95%
Certified Creeping Red Fescue Cultivar (1 only) 5-20%

5.5g Shady Low Maintenance Fine Fescue

Shall be seeded in sites with shady exposure, and which will receive minimal inputs of routine maintenance. A single cultivar or blend of creeping red fescue, or chewings fescue, or sheep fescue, or hard fescue shall be used. The seeding rate shall not be less than 4.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2, and shall not be more than 6.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2.

Certified Creeping Red Fescue Cultivar (1 cultivar or blend) or 100%
Certified Chewings Fescue Cultivar (1 cultivar or blend) or
Certified Sheep Fescue Cultivar (1 cultivar or blend) or
Certified Hard Fescue Cultivar (1 cultivar or blend)

5.5h Sunny Low Maintenance Fine Fescue

Shall be seeded in sites with full sun or partial shade exposure, and which will receive minimal inputs of routine maintenance. A single cultivar or blend of chewings fescue, or sheep fescue, or hard fescue shall be used. The seeding rate shall not be less than 4.0 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2, and shall not be more than 6.0 (PLS) pounds per 1000 ft2 .

Certified Chewings Fescue Cultivar (1 cultivar or blend) or 100%
Certified Sheep Fescue Cultivar (1 cultivar or blend) or
Certified Hard Fescue Cultivar (1 cultivar or blend)

5.6 Rough Turfgrass Areas

5.6a Use and Expected Maintenance of Rough Turfgrass Areas

Rough turfgrass areas are used on an occasional basis for activities such as road shoulders, campgrounds, automobile parking, recreational areas, ball fields, play areas, picnic sites, and to preserve open space. Because the intensity of their use is low, rough turfgrass areas receive routine mowing, but the mowing may be performed at long intervals and at heights not common for general turfgrass areas (i.e., 3.0 to 6.0 inches or more). Fertilization and pest control is usually not a part of their routine maintenance. Rough turfgrass areas may be level or gently sloping, but steep or erodible slopes which are not likely to be used for any of the purposes mentioned above should be seeded with an appropriate erosion control seed mixture according to the specifications of Section 9. The vegetative height limitations of rough turfgrass areas generally preclude the use of legumes such as Lespedeza and Crown Vetch, and tall grasses such as weeping lovegrass.

5.6b Preparation and Establishment of Rough Turfgrass Areas

Rough turfgrass areas often cannot be prepared with conventional seeding equipment, and certain aspects of their post-seeding maintenance, such as irrigation, may be difficult or impossible. Hydraulic seeding is a commonly used method for seeding rough turfgrass areas. Seeding rates specified in Section 5.6 are based on pure live seed (PLS); actual seeding rates shall be calculated using seed germination test data and pure live seed (PLS) rates. Rough turfgrass areas are expected to be prepared according to the specifications of Section 1-4, and seeded according to the specifications of Section 5 and Section 6. However, the seeding contractor shall not be bound to provide post-seeding care for rough turfgrass seedings, nor to guarantee the success of such seedings, unless specified otherwise.

5.6c Mixtures and Seeding Times for Rough Turfgrass Areas

Specifications for seed mixtures are shown in Section 5.6d-g, below, according to the season of seeding. The seed mixtures and seed blends used for rough turfgrass areas may vary widely; total seeding rate may be up to 1.5 times (1.5x) the minimum rates shown. Although the use of certified seed and the inclusion of cultivars mentioned in Section 5.4 is not required, their use is recommended.

5.6d Spring Season: 1 March to 15 May

Minimum seeding rate = 4.5 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2 = 200 pounds (PLS) per acre

Tall Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs./1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Hard Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs/1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Sheep Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs/1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Creeping Red and/or Chewings Fescue 0- 60% 0-3.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0-130 lbs./acre
Kentucky Bluegrass 0- 40% 0-2.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0- 90 lbs./acre
Perennial Ryegrass 0- 20% 0-1.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0- 45 lbs./acre

5.6e Summer Season: 16 May to 30 July

Minimum seeding rate = 4.5 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2 = 200 pounds (PLS) per acre
Where more rapid groundcover is needed, such as sites with steep slopes:
add: Foxtail Millet = 0.02 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2 = 10 pounds (PLS) per acre

Tall Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs./1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Hard Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs/1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Sheep Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs/1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Creeping Red and/or Chewings Fescue 0- 60% 0-3.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0-130 lbs./acre
Kentucky Bluegrass 0- 40% 0-2.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0- 90 lbs./acre
Perennial Ryegrass 0- 20% 0-1.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0- 45 lbs./acre

5.6f Fall Season: 1 August to 15 November

Minimum seeding rate = 4.5 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2 = 200 pounds (PLS) per acre

Tall Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs./1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Hard Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs/1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Sheep Fescue 0-100% 0-4.5 lbs/1000 ft2 0-200 lbs./acre
Creeping Red and/or Chewings Fescue 0- 60% 0-3.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0-130 lbs./acre
Kentucky Bluegrass 0- 40% 0-2.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0- 90 lbs./acre
Perennial Ryegrass 0- 20% 0-1.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0- 45 lbs./acre

5.6g Winter Season: 16 November to 28 February

Minimum seeding rate = 4.5 pounds (PLS) per 1000 ft2 = 200 pounds (PLS) per acre
Where more rapid groundcover is needed, such as sites with steep slopes:
add:
Cereal Rye = 0.5 pound (PLS) per 1000 ft2 = 22 pounds (PLS) per acre

Tall Fescue 0-80% 0-3.6 lbs./1000 ft2 0-160 lbs./acre
Hard Fescue 0-80% 0-3.6 lbs/1000 ft2 0-160 lbs./acre
Sheep Fescue 0-80% 0-3.6 lbs/1000 ft2 0-160 lbs./acre
Creeping Red and/or Chewings Fescue 0- 60% 0-3.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0-130 lbs./acre
Kentucky Bluegrass 0- 40% 0-2.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0- 90 lbs./acre
Perennial Ryegrass 0- 20% 0-1.0 lbs/1000 ft2 0- 45 lbs./acre

5.7 Acceptance

5.7a Acceptance of Materials

The seeding contractor shall inform all affected parties of the composition of the seed mixtures or seed blends which are intended for use at the seeding site before they are seeded; acknowledgment of acceptance of the seed mixtures or seed blends shall be given by the owner, general contractor, landscape architect, or other person(s) authorized to make such a decision before seeding operations are begun. Samples of the seed mixtures or seed blends, with labels and other material identification pertaining to them, shall be retained by the seeding contractor for a minimum of 90 days after the conclusion of seeding operations.

5.7b Acceptance of Performance

Acknowledgment of acceptable performance shall be given by the owner, general contractor, landscape architect, or other person(s) authorized to inspect the seeding site upon the satisfactory completion of each Subsection of Section 5. The seeding site shall be inspected within 24 hours of the completion of each Subsection, as indicated by the seeding contractor, or within 24 hours of the completion of seeding operations, unless specified otherwise. The seeding contractor shall give notification when all Subsections of Section 5 have been completed; final acceptance and payment shall be made within 24 hours of such notification, or within the time period specified in the contract.

5.8 Disclaimer

5.8a Damage

The seeding contractor shall not be financially or otherwise held liable to repair damages incurred to the seeding site as a result of materials not applied under the supervision of the seeding contractor, nor by vandalism, nor by acts of God. The seeding contractor shall not be financially or otherwise held liable to reseed, repair, or otherwise amend the seeding site as a result of the use of seed or other products which are labeled in error or which are otherwise not in accordance with the label or description provided with them by the manufacturer or distributor of the products, when they are applied by the seeding contractor in good faith, in accordance with their label or description.

5.8b Hazards

It shall be recognized that the seeding site is a construction zone not under the ownership or legal control of the seeding contractor, and as such may present hazards to persons or property which enter the site. The seeding contractor specifically disclaims any and all responsibility for the safety and security of persons or property which may enter the seeding site before the seeding contractor has begun work or when work is underway or at any time after work has been completed, and without regard to whether such entry is legal or otherwise. The seeding contractor shall assume no responsibility for personal injury or property damage, nor be subject to any claims of negligence, when the seeding contractor has performed work according to the specifications of MSA-GS-99, as mutually agreed, or has applied products or materials according to the recommendations of their manufacturer or distributor.

5.9 Guarantee

5.9a General Guarantee

The seeding contractor shall guarantee that all seed mixtures or seed blends which are selected and seeded under the supervision of the seeding contractor shall be appropriate for the site and the intended use of the site, and shall be selected according to the specifications of Section 5 and seeded according to the specifications of Section 5 and Section 6, unless specified otherwise.

5.9b Special Limitations

When seeding operations are completed outside the seeding times for general turgrass areas, as specified in Section 5.5a, because of contractual obligations or because of delays not caused by the seeding contractor, the seeding contractor shall not be required to provide post-seeding care for these areas (Section 6.7), or to guarantee the success of the seeding (Section 6.10), unless specified otherwise. The seeding contractor shall not provide post-seeding care or to guarantee the success of any rough turfgrass areas (Section 5.6), unless specified otherwise.

5.10 Payment

The seeding contractor shall give notification upon the completion of Section 5; the seeding site shall be inspected within 24 hours of such notification, and payment shall be made at that time, or as specified in the contract. When payment is not received within the specified time period, the seeding contractor may void any guarantees related to Section 5, and may seek appropriate legal remedies.